The Myth of Rhodes: Complete Bibliography

A complete list of references cited in all articles and features across the report. See here for Dr Ian Forrest’s guide to resources on Rhodes, the history of southern Africa, and the contextualisation of ‘difficult histories’. Copies of all Facebook posts cited in the report can be found on The Poor Print here.

Rhodes: his life, his context
Main article in the report: ‘Rhodes: a Perspective

Magubane, Bernard M. (1996). The Making of a Racist State: British Imperialism and the Union of South Africa, 1875–1910. Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press.

Entry on ‘Cecil Rhodes’ in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Shula Marks and Stanley Trapido, 2004. Online on SOLO.)

The Guardian‘s 1902 obituary of Cecil Rhodes.

News24: ‘Rhodes: As divisive in death as in life’ (Sipho Masondo, 22/03/15).

Primary sources on Rhodes:

  • Cecil Rhodes, ‘Confessions of Faith’ (1877) – an online copy can be found here on the University of Pittsburgh website. (Source for University of Pittsburgh copy: John E. Flint, Cecil Rhodes [Boston: Little Brown, 1974], pp. 248-52. A copy of the text as provided by the University of Pittsburgh can be found here on The Poor Print.)
  • Rhodes’s Speech on the Second Rereading of the Glen Grey Act to the Cape House Parliament on July 30 1894, of which a transcript can be found here on (A copy of the transcript as provided by can be found on The Poor Print here. The source for’s version was: Rhodes, Cecil John [27 July 1894]. ‘Speech to the House on the Second Reading of the Glen Grey Act’, in F. Verschoyle, [1900] Cecil Rhodes: His Political Life and Speeches, 1881-1900. South Africa: Chapman and Hall, limited, pp. 371 – 390.)

Modern opinion pieces cited in the report. In order of date published:

The Rhodes Scholars
Main article in the report: ‘Rhodes: a Perspective

See The History of the University of Oxford: Volume VII: Nineteenth-Century Oxford, Part 2, ed. M. G. Brock and M. C. Curthoys. (Online here on SOLO.) Chapter 29 by E. T. Williams is entitled ‘The Rhodes Scholars’.

Also see the website for Rhodes House.

How to contextualise Rhodes?
Main article in the report: ‘Putting Rhodes in His Place

English Heritage often faces issues around contextualising historic buildings. For more information on the two mentioned in ‘Putting Rhodes in His Place’, see:

See also ‘The Slavery Connections of Marble Hill House‘, a 2008 report by Dr Laurence Brown commissioned by Historic England. Copy on The Poor Print here.

The Oriel statue and its inscription
Main article in the report: ‘Rhodes: a Perspective

See ‘Oxford Inscriptions: Cecil Rhodes statue on Rhodes Building‘, part of ‘History on the Streets of Oxford’ (an online project by Stephanie Jenkins compiling the history of the town).

Rhodes Must Fall (University of Cape Town)
Main article in the report: ‘Rhodes Must Fall: a Timeline

News reports cited, in order of date published:

UCT Vice-Chancellor’s statement on eviction of students from the Bremner building (Dr Max Price, 10/04/15, UCT website). A copy can be found on The Poor Print here.

Rhodes Must Fall (University of Cape Town): selected Facebook posts
Main article in the report: ‘Rhodes Must Fall: a Timeline

A collection of RMF UCT’s statements can be found externally here on the website of the Johannesburg Workshop of Theory and Criticism. The Facebook posts referenced in The Poor Print‘s report were, in order of date published:

Rhodes Must Fall in Oxford: news reports cited (in order of date published)
Main article in the report: ‘Rhodes Must Fall: a Timeline

The Independent, Oxford Students Call for “Racist” Statue of Cecil Rhodes to be Pulled Down‘ (Alexandra Sims, 13/07/15).

Cherwell: ‘Rhodes Must Fall protests at matriculation’ (George Hames, 24/10/15).

Cherwell: RMF to protest at Oriel following Rhodes statue petition’ (Kim Darrah, 07/11/15).

Cherwell: ‘Rhodes Must Fall protest outside Oriel’ (Luke Barratt, 07/11/15).

Cherwell: ‘Oriel releases RMF statement’ (Daniel Sutton, 17/12/15).

The Telegraph: ‘Removal of Rhodes statue “could be blocked due to its historical interest”’ (Javier Espinoza, 19/12/15).

Cherwell: ‘Global politicians wade into RMF debate’ (Jack Schofield, 27/12/15).

The Times: ‘Rhodes statue is protected by planning rules’ (Neil Johnston and Greg Hurst, 09/01/16).

The Guardian: ‘Cecil Rhodes statue row: Chris Patten tells students to embrace freedom of thought’ (Damien Gayle and Nadia Khomami, 13/01/16).


Cherwell‘Majority of Oxford students: Rhodes should stay’ (Harry Gosling, 14/01/16).

The Telegraph: ‘Students demand Cecil Rhodes name to be removed from computer room at Oxford University‘ (Javier Espinoza, 18/01/16).

YouGov: ‘Rhodes Must Not Fall’ (Will Dahlgreen, 18/01/16).

Cherwell: ‘RMF win Union debate by slim margin’ (Daniel Kodsi, 19/01/16).

Cherwell: ‘Univ JCR votes to rename IT room’ (Daniel Sutton, 22/01/16).

New York Times: ‘Oxford University Will Keep Statue of Cecil Rhodes‘ (Stephen Castle, 29/01/16).

The Telegraph: ‘Cecil Rhodes statue to remain at Oxford  University after alumni threaten to withdraw millions’ (Javier Espinoza, 29/01/16). N.B. Oriel College strongly disputes the narrative in this article.

Cherwell: ‘St Anne’s Common Rooms debate RMF’ (Daniel Kodsi, 30/01/16).

The Telegraph, Oxford college won’t rename Rhodes computer room‘ (Javier Espinoza and Camilla Turner, 05/02/16).

The Oxford Student, OUSU condemns Oriel over Rhodes statue‘ (Megan Izzo, 06/02/16).

The Guardian: ‘“Take it down!”: Rhodes Must Fall campaign marches through Oxford’ (Jessica Elgot, 09/03/16).

Cherwell: ‘RMF members disrupt Rhodes contextualisation meeting’ (Harry Gosling, 03/06/16).

Cherwell: ‘Student protests against All Souls’ Codrington’ (Tony Diver, 20/06/16).

Cherwell: ‘Rhodes Must Fall campaigners demonstrate outside Oriel open day’ (Ellen Peirson-Hagger, 01/07/16).

Cherwell: ‘Rhodes Must Fall return to protest outside Oriel’ (Jack Hunter, 02/12/16).

BBC: ‘Joshua Nott: Rhodes Must Fall activist wins Rhodes scholarship‘ (24/01/17).

The Guardian, ‘Oxford college to launch scholarship in attempt to address slavery legacy’ (Richard Adams, 10/11/17).

Cherwell, All Souls starts new scholarship in attempt to tackle colonial legacy‘ (Henry Straughan, 11/11/17).

The Telegraph, ‘Oxford college commissions slavery plaque amid student pressure over benefactor’s colonial links’ (Camilla Turner, 20/20/17).

Oriel College: statements on Rhodes Must Fall, in order of date published
Main article in the report: ‘Rhodes Must Fall: a Timeline

Oriel’s 17/12/15 statement can no longer be found on their website, but a copy can be found here at (A copy of the statement as recorded by politicsweb can also be found on The Poor Print here.)

Statement on 28/01/16. (Oriel website. Copy on The Poor Print here.)

Rhodes Must Fall in Oxford: Facebook posts cited
Main article in the report: ‘Rhodes Must Fall: a Timeline

#RHODESMUSTFALL Solidarity Action: an event organised by Annie Teriba and Bi Ko on 19/03/15. (Annie Teriba would later become prominently associated with Rhodes Must Fall.) Copy on The Poor Print here.

Oxford Union ‘Colonial Comeback’ controversy (31/05/15). A copy of the Facebook post can be found on The Poor Print here.


Rhodes Must Fall in Oxford: website articles cited
Main article in the report: ‘Rhodes Must fall: a Timeline

The website for Rhodes Must Fall in Oxford can be found here. Their petition for the statue to be removed can be found here. Cited in the report were two open letters following high-profile interventions into the campaign to have Oriel’s statue removed. These letters were:

Oxford Union debate on reparations to former colonies
Main article in the report: ‘Rhodes Must Fall: a Timeline

The Independent: ‘Dr Shashi Tharoor tells the Oxford Union why Britain owes reparations for colonising India in viral speech’ (Doug Bolton, 22/07/15).

Historic England
Main article in the report: ‘Rhodes Must Fall: a Timeline

The website for Historic England explains their activities, funding and governance.

Safe spaces, no-platforming, freedom of speech
Main article in the report: ‘Safe Spaces and Student Protest

The petition against Germaine Greer’s Cardiff University lecture.

Guardian news reports, in order of date published:

Other news articles, in order of date published:

Opinion pieces, in order of date published:

Iconography campaigns elsewhere, and the commemoration of the past. Grouped by topic, then by date published.
Main article in the report: ‘Iconography campaigns: a global perspective

BBC: ‘Oxford Rhodes statue row is part of global protest’ (Sean Coughlan, 29/01/16).


Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa:

University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: IOL News: ‘UKZN statue row rages on’ (Sihle Mlambo and Mphathi Nxumalo, 27/03/15).

Harvard University, Boston, US:

Amherst College, Massachusetts, US:

Princeton University, New Jersey, US:

Yale University, New Haven, US: YaleNews: ‘Yale to change Calhoun College’s name to honor Grace Mary Hopper’ (11/02/17).

Cambridge University, UK: The Guardian: ‘Benin bronze row: Cambridge college removes cockerel’ (Sally Weale, 08/03/16).

All Souls College, Oxford, UK:

Bristol University, UK: The Telegraph: ‘Students inspired by Rhodes Must Fall campaign demand Bristol University change name of Wills Tower over “slave trade” links’ (Harry Yorke, 28/03/17).

Confederacy statues in the US:

Spain: The Independent: ‘Spain getting rid of streets named after fascist leaders, dedicating them to women instead’ (Will Worley, 04/12/16).

Austria: BBC: ‘Hitler house in Austria to be demolished after long row’ (17/10/16).

Miscellaneous other opinion pieces/features cited in the report. Ordered by date published:

Media Diversified: ‘University of Oxford: Still the intellectual heart of the British Empire?‘ (Natalya Din-Kariuki, 09/06/15).

BBC Radio 4 Today Programme, 13/01/16 (featuring Lord Patten). An online clip of the segment in question can be found here on the YouTube channel ‘Defend Free Speech’.

Guardian feature: ‘Empire state of mind – why do so many people think colonialism was a good thing?‘ (20/01/16).

All links operational at time of publication. The Poor Print takes no responsibility for the accuracy of content on other sites (or originally found on other sites), but every effort has been made to find reputable sources.

This bibliography has been revised and updated several times as other articles in the Special Report are revised and updated. Last update: 01/01/18.

The Poor Print

Established in 2013, The Poor Print is the student-run newspaper of Oriel College, Oxford. Written by members of the JCR, MCR, SCR and staff, new issues are published fortnightly during term. Our current Executive Editors are Siddiq Islam and Jerric Chong.

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